Allen, T. J., Sherman, J. W., Conrey, F. R., & Stroessner, S. J. (2009). Stereotype strength and attentional bias: Preference for confirming versus disconfirming information depends on processing capacity. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 45(5), 1081–1087. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JESP.2009.06.002

AMA (2017).  Working together to end racial and ethnic disparities: One physician at a time kit. Retrieved from https://commerce.ama-assn.org/store/ui/catalog/productDetail?product_id=prod1240029&navAction=push

AMA Council on Ethical and Judicial Affairs (2010). AMA Code of Medical Ethics’ Opinion on Disparities in Health Care. Virtual Mentor, 12(10), 790-791. DOI: 10.1001/virtualmentor.2010.12.10.coet1-1010

Ames, D. (2009). Pushing up to a point: Assertiveness and effectiveness in leadership and interpersonal dynamics. Research in Organizational Behavior29, 111-133. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.riob.2009.06.010

Ames, D. R., & Flynn, F. J. (2007). What breaks a leader: The curvilinear relation between assertiveness and leadership. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology92(2), 307-324. https://dx.doi/10.1037/0022-3514.92.2.307

Amodio, D. M. (2014). The neuroscience of prejudice and stereotyping. Nature Reviews Neuroscience, 15(10), 670–682. https://doi.org/10.1038/nrn3800

Baker, R. B. (2014). The American Medical Association and Race. AMA Journal of Ethics16(6), 479-488. doi: 10.1001/virtualmentor.2014.16.6.mhst1-1406

Banaji, M. R. (2013). Blindspot: Hidden biases of good people. New York, NY: Delacorte Press.

Barrett, L. F., & Bliss-Moreau, E. (2009). She’s emotional. He’s having a bad day: Attributional explanations for emotion stereotypes. Emotion, 9(5), 649-658. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0016821

Bearman, M., Palermo, C., Allen, L. M., & Williams, B. (2015). Learning empathy through simulation: a systematic literature review. Simulation in Healthcare10(5), 308-319. https://doi.org/ 10.1097/SIH.0000000000000113

Bell, J. G., & Perry, B. (2015). Outside looking in: The community impacts of anti-lesbian, gay, and bisexual hate crime. Journal of Homosexuality, 62(1), 98–120. https://doi.org/10.1080/00918369.2014.957133

Blodorn, A., O’Brien, L. T., Cheryan, S., & Vick, S. B. (2016). Understanding perceptions of racism in the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina: The roles of system and group justification. Social Justice Research, 29(2), 139–158. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11211-016-0259-9

Bruneau, E., Kteily, N., & Falk, E. (2018). Interventions highlighting hypocrisy reduce collective blame of Muslims for individual acts of violence and assuage anti-Muslim hostility. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin44(3), 430-448. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167217744197

Bugiardini, R., Navarro Estrada, J. L., Nikus, K., Hall, A. S., & Manfrini, O. (2010). Gender bias in acute coronary syndromes. Current Vascular Pharmacology8(2), 276-284.

Burgess, D. J., Beach, M. C., & Saha, S. (2017). Mindfulness practice: A promising approach to reducing the effects of clinician implicit bias on patients. Patient Education and Counseling, 100(2), 372-376. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pec.2016.09.005

Burgess, D. J., Van Ryn, M., Crowley-Matoka, M., & Malat, J. (2006). Understanding the provider contribution to race/ethnicity disparities in pain treatment: Insights from dual process models of stereotyping. Pain Medicine7(2), 119-134. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1526-4637.2006.00105.x

Chapman, E. N., Kaatz, A., & Carnes, M. (2013). Physicians and implicit bias: How doctors may unwittingly perpetuate health care disparities. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(11), 1504–1510. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11606-013-2441-1

Chiaramonte, G. R., & Friend, R. (2006). Medical students’ and residents’ gender bias in the diagnosis, treatment, and interpretation of coronary heart disease symptoms. Health Psychology, 25(3), 255-266. http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/0278-6133.25.3.255

Cleeland, C. S., Gonin, R., Baez, L., Loehrer, P., & Pandya, K. J. (1997). Pain and treatment of pain in minority patients with cancer: The Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Minority Outpatient Pain Study. Annals of Internal Medicine127(9), 813-816. https://doi.org/ 10.7326/0003-4819-127-9-199711010-00006

Cohen, G. L., & Sherman, D. K. (2014). The psychology of change: Self-affirmation and social psychological intervention. Annual Review of Psychology, 65, 333–371.

Cooper, L. A., Roter, D. L., Carson, K. A., Beach, M. C., Sabin, J. A., Greenwald, A. G., & Inui, T. S. (2012). The associations of clinicians’ implicit attitudes about race with medical visit communication and patient ratings of interpersonal care. American Journal of Public Health102(5), 979-987. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300558

Crilly, M. A., Bundred, P. E., Leckey, L. C., & Johnstone, F. C. (2008). Gender bias in the clinical management of women with angina: Another look at the Yentl Syndrome. Journal of Women’s Health, 17(3), 331–342. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2007.0383

Crisp, R. J., Turner, R. N., & Hewstone, M. (2010). Common ingroups and complex identities: Routes to reducing bias in multiple category contexts. Group Dynamics: Theory, Research, and Practice14(1), 32-45. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0017303

Cruz-Flores, S., Rabinstein, A., Biller, J., Elkind, M. S., Griffith, P., Gorelick, P. B., … & Peterson, E. (2011). Racial-ethnic disparities in stroke care: The American experience: A statement for healthcare professionals from the American Heart Association/American Stroke Association. Stroke42(7), 2091-2116. doi: 10.1161/STR.0b013e3182213e24

Dalbert, C. (2009). Belief in a just world. In M. R. Leary & R. H. Hoyle (Eds.), Handbook of Individual Differences in Social Behavior (pp. 288-297). New York: Guilford Publications.

Dasgupta, N. (2013). Implicit attitudes and beliefs adapt to situations: A decade of research on the malleability of implicit prejudice, stereotypes, and the self-concept. Advances in Experimental Social Psychology, 47, 233–279. https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-12-407236-7.00005-X

Daugherty, S. L., Blair, I. V., Havranek, E. P., Furniss, A., Dickinson, L. M., Karimkhani, E., … Masoudi, F. A. (2017). Implicit gender bias and the use of cardiovascular tests among cardiologists. Journal of the American Heart Association, 6(12), 1-11. https://doi.org/10.1161/JAHA.117.006872

Dehon, E., Weiss, N., Jones, J., Faulconer, W., Hinton, E., & Sterling, S. (2017). A systematic review of the impact of physician implicit racial bias on clinical decision making. Academic Emergency Medicine24(8), 895-904. https://doi.org/ 10.1111/acem.13214

Dickman, S. L., Himmelstein, D. U., & Woolhandler, S. (2017). Inequality and the health-care system in the USA. The Lancet389(10077), 1431-1441. doi: 10.1016/S0140-6736(17)30398-7

Dovidio, J. F., Gaertner, S. L., & Pearson, A. R. (2017). Aversive racism and contemporary bias.  In F. K. Barlow & C. G. Sibley (Eds.), The Cambridge handbook of the psychology of prejudice (pp. 267-294).  Cambridge, England: Cambridge University Press

Dovidio, J. F., Kawakami, K., & Gaertner, S. L. (2002). Implicit and explicit prejudice and interracial interaction. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology82(1), 62-68. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.82.1.62

Evans, J. S. B. & Stanovich, K. E. (2013). Dual-process theories of higher cognition: Advancing the debate. Perspectives on Psychological Science8(3), 223-241. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F1745691612460685

Fiscella, K., & Sanders, M. R. (2016). Racial and ethnic disparities in the quality of health care. Annual Review of Public Health37, 375-394. doi:.1146/annurev-publhealth-032315-021439

Fiske, S. T., Cuddy, A. J., & Glick, P. (2007). Universal dimensions of social cognition: Warmth and competence. Trends in Cognitive Sciences11(2), 77-83. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tics.2006.11.005

FitzGerald C. & Hurst S. (2017). Implicit bias in healthcare professionals: A systematic review. BMC Medical Ethics, 18(1), 19. doi: 10.1186/s12910-017-0179-8.

Flint, S. W. (2015). Obesity stigma: Prevalence and impact in healthcare. British Journal of Obesity, 1(1), 14–18. https://doi.org/10.3109/13561820.2013.791671

Franssen, F. M. (2014). Overweight and obesity are risk factors for COPD misdiagnosis and overtreatment. Chest, 146(6), 1426-1428. https://doi.org/10.1378/chest.14-1308

Gordijn EH, Hindriks I, Koomen W, Dijksterhuis A, & Van Knippenberg A. (2004). Consequences of stereotype suppression and internal suppression motivation: a self-regulation approach. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(2), 212-224. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167203259935

Greenwood, B. N., Carnahan, S., & Huang, L. (2018). Patient–physician gender concordance and increased mortality among female heart attack patients. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences115(34), 8569-8574. DOI:10.1073/pnas.1800097115

Hafeez H, Zeshan M, Tahir MA, Jahan N, & Naveed S. (2017). Health care disparities among lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender youth: A literature review. Cureus, 9(4), e1184. doi: 10.7759/cureus.1184.

Hamberg, K. (2008). Gender bias in medicine. Women’s Health, 4(3), 237–243. https://doi.org/10.2217/17455057.4.3.237

Hamberg, K., Risberg, G., Johansson, E. E., & Westman, G. (2002). Gender bias in physicians’ management of neck pain: A study of the answers in a Swedish National Examination. Journal of Women’s Health & Gender-Based Medicine, 11(7), 653–666. https://doi.org/10.1089/152460902760360595

Hampton SB, Cavalier J, & Langford R. (2015). The influence of race and gender on pain management: A systematic literature review. Pain Management Nursing, 16(6), 968-77. doi: 10.1016/j.pmn.2015.06.009.

Hawkins, K. A., & Cougle, J. R. (2013). Effects of interpretation training on hostile attribution bias and reactivity to interpersonal insult. Behavior Therapy44(3), 479-488. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beth.2013.04.005

Heilman, M. E., A. S. Wallen, D. Fuchs, and M. M. Tamkins. (2004). Penalties for success: Reactions to women who succeed at male gender‐typed tasks. Journal of Applied Psychology, 83(3), 416–427.

Hoyt, C. L. (2010). Women, men, and leadership: Exploring the gender gap at the top. Social and Personality Psychology Compass4(7), 484-498.

Huizinga, M. M., Bleich, S. N., Beach, M. C., Clark, J. M., & Cooper, L. A. (2010). Disparity in physician perception of patients’ adherence to medications by obesity status. Obesity18(10), 1932-1937. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2010.35

Institute of Medicine. (2003). Unequal treatment: Confronting racial and ethnic disparities in health care. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. https://doi.org/10.17226/10260.

Jaffee, K. D., Shires, D. A., & Stroumsa, D. (2016). Discrimination and delayed health care among transgender women and men. Medical Care, 54(11), 1010–1016. https://doi.org/10.1097/MLR.0000000000000583

Johnson, T. J., Hickey, R. W., Switzer, G. E., Miller, E., Winger, D. G., Nguyen, M., … & Hausmann, L. R. (2016). The impact of cognitive stressors in the emergency department on physician implicit racial bias. Academic Emergency Medicine, 23(3), 297-305. https://doi.org/10.1111/acem.12901

Jordan, C. H., Spencer, S. J., & Zanna, M. P. (2005). Types of high self-esteem and prejudice: How implicit self-esteem relates to ethnic discrimination among high explicit self-esteem individuals. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin31(5), 693-702. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167204271580

Jost, J. T., & Hunyady, O. (2003). The psychology of system justification and the palliative function of ideology. European Review of Social Psychology, 13(1), 111–153. https://doi.org/10.1080/10463280240000046

Kahneman, D. (2011). Thinking, Fast and Slow. New York, NY: Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Kentner AC & Grace SL. (2017). Between mind and heart: Sex-based cognitive bias in cardiovascular disease treatment. Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology, 45, 18-24. doi:  10.1016/j.yfrne.2017.02.002.

Khubchandani JA, Shen C, Ayturk D, Kiefe CI, & Santry HP. (2018). Disparities in access to emergency general surgery care in the United States. Surgery, 163(2), 243-250. doi: 10.1016/j.surg.2017.07.026.

Kteily, N. S., & Bruneau, E. (2017). Darker demons of our nature: The need to (re) focus attention on blatant forms of dehumanization. Current Directions in Psychological Science26(6), 487-494. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0963721417708230

Lee, C., Ayers, S. L., & Kronenfeld, J. J. (2009). The association between perceived provider discrimination, healthcare utilization and health status in racial and ethnic minorities. Ethnicity & Disease, 19(3), 330–337. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19769017

Lee, P., Le Saux, M., Siegel, R., Goyal, M., Chen, C., Ma, Y., & Meltzer, A. C. (2019). Racial and ethnic disparities in the management of acute pain in US emergency departments: Meta-analysis and systematic review. The American Journal of Emergency Medicine. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.AJEM.2019.06.014

Macintyre S, Ford G, & Hunt K. (1999). Do women ‘over-report’ morbidity? Men’s and women’s responses to structured prompting on a standard question on long standing illness. Social Science & Medicine, 48(1), 89-98. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0277-9536(98)00292-5

Maina IW, Belton TD, Ginzberg S, Singh A, & Johnson TJ. (2018). A decade of studying implicit racial/ethnic bias in healthcare providers using the implicit association test. Social Science & Medicine, 199, 219-229. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2017.05.009.

Maserejian, N. N., Link, C. L., Lutfey, K. L., Marceau, L. D., & McKinlay, J. B. (2009). Disparities in physicians’ interpretations of heart disease symptoms by patient gender: Results of a video vignette factorial experiment. Journal of Women’s Health18(10), 1661-1667. https://doi.org/10.1089/jwh.2008.1007

Minick, P., Clark, P. C., Dalton, J. A., Horne, E., Greene, D., & Brown, M. (2012). Long-bone fracture pain management in the emergency department. Journal of Emergency Nursing, 38(3), 211–217. https://doi.org/10.1016/J.JEN.2010.11.001

Montoya, R. M., Horton, R. S., & Kirchner, J. (2008). Is actual similarity necessary for attraction? A meta-analysis of actual and perceived similarity. Journal of Social and Personal Relationships25(6), 889-922. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0265407508096700

Nickerson, R. S. (1998). Confirmation bias: A ubiquitous phenomenon in many guises. Review of General Psychology2(2), 175-220.

Nowrouzi, B. (2015). Weight bias in the workplace: A literature review. Occupational Medicine & Health Affairs, 3(3), 1-10. https://doi.org/10.4172/2329-6879.1000206

Okimoto, T. G., & Brescoll, V. L. (2010). The price of power: Power seeking and backlash against female politicians. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin36(7), 923-936. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167210371949

Oksuzyan A, Dańko MJ, Caputo J, Jasilionis D, & Shkolnikov VM. (2019). Is the story about sensitive women and stoical men true? Gender differences in health after adjustment for reporting behavior. Social Science & Medicine, 228, 41-50. doi: 10.1016/j.socscimed.2019.03.002.

Oliver, M. B., Jackson, R. L., Moses, N. N., & Dangerfield, C. L. (2004). The face of crime: Viewers’ memory of race-related facial features of individuals pictured in the news. Journal of Communication, 54(1), 88–104. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1460-2466.2004.tb02615.x

Olson, M. A., & Fazio, R. H. (2004). Trait inferences as a function of automatically activated racial attitudes and motivation to control prejudiced reactions. Basic and Applied Social Psychology, 26(1), 1–11. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15324834basp2601_1

Payne, J. S. (2012). Influence of race and symptom expression on clinicians’ depressive disorder identification in African American men. Journal of the Society for Social Work and Research, 3(3), 162–177. https://doi.org/10.5243/jsswr.2012.11

Pearson, A. R., Dovidio, J. F., & Gaertner, S. L. (2009). The nature of contemporary prejudice: Insights from Aversive Racism. Social and Personality Psychology Compass, 3(3), 314–338. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1751-9004.2009.00183.x

Penner LA, Blair IV, Albrecht TL, Dovidio JF.(2014). Reducing racial health care disparities: A social psychological analysis. Policy Insights from the Behavioral and Brain Sciences, 1(1), 204-212. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F2372732214548430

Penner, L. A., Dovidio, J. F., Gonzalez, R., Albrecht, T. L., Chapman, R., Foster, T., … & Gadgeel, S. (2016). The effects of oncologist implicit racial bias in racially discordant oncology interactions. Journal of Clinical Oncology34(24), 2874-2880. https://doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2015.66.3658

Penner, L. A., Dovidio, J. F., West, T. V., Gaertner, S. L., Albrecht, T. L., Dailey, R. K., & Markova, T. (2010). Aversive racism and medical interactions with Black patients: A field study. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology46(2), 436-440. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jesp.2009.11.004

Penner, L. A., Gaertner, S., Dovidio, J. F., Hagiwara, N., Porcerelli, J., Markova, T., & Albrecht, T. L. (2013). A social psychological approach to improving the outcomes of racially discordant medical interactions. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 28(9), 1143-1149. https://doi.org/10.1007%2Fs11606-013-2339-y

Persky, S., & Eccleston, C. P. (2011). Medical student bias and care recommendations for an obese versus non-obese virtual patient. International Journal of Obesity35(5), 728-735. https://doi.org/10.1038/ijo.2010.173

Pettigrew, T. F. (2001). The ultimate attribution error: Extending Allport’s cognitive analysis of prejudice. In M. A. Hogg & D. Abrams (Eds.), Key readings in social psychology. Intergroup relations: Essential readings (pp. 162-173). New York, NY: Psychology Press.

Phelan, S. M., Burgess, D. J., Yeazel, M. W., Hellerstedt, W. L., Griffin, J. M., & van Ryn, M. (2015). Impact of weight bias and stigma on quality of care and outcomes for patients with obesity. Obesity Reviews16(4), 319-326. https://doi.org/10.1111/obr.12266

Puhl, R., & Brownell, K. D. (2001). Bias, discrimination, and obesity. Obesity Research, 9(12), 788–805. https://doi.org/10.1038/oby.2001.108

Puhl, R., Wharton, C., & Heuer, C. (2009). Weight bias among dietetics students: Implications for treatment practices. Journal of the American Dietetic Association109(3), 438-444. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jada.2008.11.034

Reeves, A. N. (2014). Written in Black & White: Exploring confirmation bias is racialized perceptions of writing skills (Nextions Yellow Paper Series 2014-0404). Nextions: Chicago, IL. Retrieved from http://nextions.com/wp-content/uploads/2017/05/written-in-black-and-white-yellow-paper-series.pdf

Rhodin, A. (2006). The rise of opiophobia: Is history a barrier to prescribing?. Journal of Pain & Palliative Care Pharmacotherapy20(3), 31-32. https://doi.org/10.1080/J354v20n03_07

Rudman, L. A., & Kilianski, S. E. (2000). Implicit and explicit attitudes toward female authority. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin26(11), 1315-1328. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167200263001

Rudman, L. A., & Phelan, J. E. (2010). The effect of priming gender roles on women’s implicit gender beliefs and career aspirations. Social Psychology, 41(3), 192-202. DOI: 10.1027/1864-9335/a000027

Sabin, J. A., & Greenwald, A. G. (2012). The influence of implicit bias on treatment recommendations for 4 common pediatric conditions: Pain, urinary tract infection, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and asthma. American Journal of Public Health102(5), 988-995. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2011.300621

Schultz, J. R., & Maddox, K. B. (2013). Shooting the messenger to spite the message? Exploring reactions to claims of racial bias. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 39(3), 346-358. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167212475223

Scroggins, W. A., Mackie, D. M., Allen, T. J., & Sherman, J. W. (2016). Reducing prejudice with labels: Shared group memberships attenuate implicit bias and expand implicit group boundaries. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 42(2), 219-229. https://doi.org/10.1177%2F0146167215621048

Sherman, D. K. (2013). Self‐affirmation: Understanding the effects. Social and Personality Psychology Compass7(11), 834-845. https://doi.org/10.1111/spc3.12072

Strack, F., & Deutsch, R. (2004). Reflective and impulsive determinants of social behavior. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 8(3), 220–247. https://doi.org/10.1207/s15327957pspr0803_1

Todd, A. R., Bodenhausen, G. V, Richeson, J. a, & Galinsky, A. D. (2011). Perspective taking combats automatic expressions of racial bias. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 100(6), 1027–1042. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0022308

Van Ryn, M., Burgess, D. J., Dovidio, J. F., Phelan, S. M., Saha, S., Malat, J., … & Perry, S. (2011). The impact of racism on clinician cognition, behavior, and clinical decision making. Du Bois Review: Social Science Research on Race8(1), 199-218. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1742058X11000191

Vorauer, J. D., & Turpie, C. A. (2004). Disruptive effects of vigilance on dominant group members’ treatment of outgroup members: Choking versus shining under pressure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology87(3), 384-399. https://doi.org/ 10.1037/0022-3514.87.3.384

Vorauer, J. D., Gagnon, A., & Sasaki, S. J. (2009). Salient intergroup ideology and intergroup interaction. Psychological Science20(7), 838-845. https://doi.org/10.1111%2Fj.1467-9280.2009.02369.x

Wheeler SM & Bryant AS. (2017). Racial and ethnic disparities in health and health care. Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics, 44(1), 1-11. doi: 10.1016/j.ogc.2016.10.001.

Williams, D., Bennett, K., & Feely, J. (2003). Evidence for an age and gender bias in the secondary prevention of ischaemic heart disease in primary care. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 55(6), 604–608. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-2125.2003.01795.x

Yee, L. M., & Simon, M. A. (2011). Perceptions of coercion, discrimination and other negative experiences in postpartum contraceptive counseling for low-income minority women. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 22(4), 1387–1400. https://doi.org/10.1353/hpu.2011.0144

Zeidan, F., Johnson, S. K., Diamond, B. J., David, Z., & Goolkasian, P. (2010). Mindfulness meditation improves cognition: Evidence of brief mental training. Consciousness and Cognition19(2), 597-605. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.concog.2010.03.014

This form is currently undergoing maintenance. Please try again later.

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *

Post comment